Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Keynesian and Neoliberal View of Unemployment Essay

Both the Keynesian and Neoliberal era came into existence as an aftermath of both an economic crisis and a war. Keynesianism came after the Second World War when the then neoclassical economy was in crisis. This crisis brought forth Keynesianism with the underlying disbelief in the self-regulating nature of capitalism. The Keynesian ideology believed in increased state intervention to produce economic stability. This policy rested on four policy prescription; full employment; a social safety net; increased labor rights; and investment policies were to be left to private enterprises. Keynesianism’s subsequent inability to deal with the unexpected inflation caused by two international oil crises and during the period of the†¦show more content†¦Evidence of this period can be seen from the dramatic increase in GDP from 15.7 percent to 26.4 percent between 1920 and 1950 then reaching 46.5 percent in 1984 (Course-reader 26: Banting 1986b:2; Bakker 1990:429, Table 2.1 ). Th ere was a general fear that if the economy would land in another economic crisis if reforms were not made. Even capitalist supporters believed that market could simply not survive without some degree of state intervention and regulation (Course-reader 24:Savage and Robins 1982: ix). The fall of the Keynesian (the Keynesian crisis) era was instigated by the inflation caused by the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the subsequent increase in oil prices by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). This fall in the Keynesian era was accompanied with capital flight, decline in profits and De-industrialization in the economy. The neoliberal era on the other hand, made its debut in 1984 after the defeat of the Trudeau administration and is the era we are in today. Comparable to the Keynesian era, the neoliberal era was a response to the crisis of the Keynesian era in the 1970s and 1980s. The Neoliberal era emerged as a result of the failure of the Keynesian era to deal with the stagflation that arose in the economy as well as the inability of Keynesianism to adaptShow MoreRelatedEconomics And Classical Liberal Economics1900 Words   |  8 PagesAfter World War II, Keynesian policies had dominated the economic system in most countries around the world. However, this soon changed after the oil crisis in the 1970’s and after government intervention was blamed for stagflation, paving the way for the rise in neoliberal economics dominated by Thatcherism and Reaganomics. The difference between neoliberal economics and classical liberal economics is the rejection of Adam Smith’s theory of the invis ible hand of supply and demand and believe itRead MoreThe Great Depression Shaped Economic Theory, Social Life, And People s View Of A Market Economy1157 Words   |  5 Pagestheory, social life, and people’s view of a market economy in general. The capitalist economic system seemed to be on the verge of collapse. Something drastic needed to be done in order to get society out of the depression. In his famous book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, Keyes attempted to show how economics and the market functioned and he proposed different approaches to creating government policy to guide the economy post war. Keynesian economists proposed that theRead MoreLiberal Compromise And The Golden Age2581 Words   |  11 Pageswas the USA at that time. As Charles Kindleberger, put it: ‘for the world economy to be stabilized, there has to be a stabilizer, one stabilizer. Two theories emerge about hegemonic stability and the role of the USA, the neorealist theory and the neoliberal theory. Neo-realists argue that an international free system of trade, is what the hegemon desires as it stands to benefit the most out of it as opposed to smaller states. Other states could still however benefit from an open free market. AspectsRead MoreCorporate Tax Rate4162 Words   |  17 Pagesultimately be lost in under-performing corporations and a decrease in future jobs and foreign investment, and that instead, lowering the tax rate will generate foreign investment and increase domestic corporate productivity. Considering these two views, the purpose of this essay is to examine the question: Should Canada further cut its corporate tax rate? In doing so it will argue that the Canadian government should continue with the scheduled plan to cut the corporate tax rate further from 16.5%Read MoreThe Legacy Of Ford s Policies1682 Words   |  7 Pageseconomic ills of the day. When classic liberalism, a laisse faire approach espousing freedom of the market, failed, Keynesian egalitarian liberalism successfully promoted market regulation, government spending, high taxation of the wealthy, and higher wages and welfare social services. When the egalitarian mold met with economic crisis in the 1970s, its high inflation and unemployment coupled with low corporate profit prompted the â€Å"revival of classic liberalism under the novel conditions of globalization†Read MoreThe Neo Classical Model Of Economics1505 Words   |  7 PagesMONETARISM The 1930’s saw the neo-classical model of economics, championed by Walras and Mengers, crumble as rates of unemployment rose exponentially on a global scale. In the midst of this economic crisis Keynes offered solution to the crisis in his 1936 ‘General theory of Employment, Interests and Money’. He successfully argued that the state was alone capable of steering the economy to produce ‘social stability and social justice’ (Valentine, 2003) Thus the post-war consensus was formed and consequentiallyRead MoreFinancialization Essay7910 Words   |  32 Pagesmultifaceted agenda that (1) restores policy control over financial markets, (2) challenges the neoliberal economic policy paradigm encouraged by financialization, (3) makes corporations responsive to interests of stakeholders other than just financial markets, and (4) reforms the political process so as to diminish the influence of corporations and wealthy elites. Keywords: Financialization; Neoliberal Policy; Deregulation; Debt; Financial Fragility JEL Classifications: B50, E44, E60 2 IRead More Unregulated Capitalism Undermines the Legitimacy of Liberal Democracy2355 Words   |  10 Pagesintolerable working conditions in order to obtain surplus value (Harder 81). After the Second World War, Keynesian taxation policies and welfare programs were designed to stimulate the economy and re-empower the working class (Harder 82; Li 292-3). However, concerns were raised about economic stagflation and whether apathetic persons were depleting valuable resources. With this dissent, the neoliberal state emerged in the 1970s to reduce the extent of social programs and promote capitalism that was largelyRead MoreHas Globalization Change Culture and Societal Norms?3163 Words   |  13 Pages1834, essentially welfare was provided by local charities or deemed to be the responsibility of family and predominantly provided by females (Haralambos and Holborn 2008). Following the Great Depression in 1930 and economic crisis after WW2, a Keynesian approach was introduced in tack ling the United Kingdom’s economic crisis by developing a fiscal policy creating full employment. As reliance on interdependent global economies were considered to have influenced the Great Depression (Giddons 2009)Read MoreSocial Policy Essay6100 Words   |  25 Pagesworkers for the free treatment of the tuberculosis by a panel doctor. on the other hand , the national insurance Act part II provided the people for the unemployment benefit for unlimited time. In order to cover the most of the workers from the age of 16 who are manual and non manual and get lower paid, an Act was extended known as Unemployment Insurance act 1920. The Old age and widows pension act 1940 decreased the pension age for the women of the age between 60 to 65 yrs old. There was a formation

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Imaginative Play - 9679 Words

sychChildren’s Imaginative Play: A Descriptive Psychology Approach Charles Kantor, Ph.D. Abstract The signiï ¬ cance of children’s imaginative play is presented from the perspective of Descriptive Psychology and in particular Ossorio’s Dramaturgical model of persons. The ï ¬â€šuidity of imaginative play, the imitation of and creation of social practices and options within play as well as the opportunity to switch roles and act according to reasons of another, contribute to the development of judgment. The observer-critic role emerges during imaginative play as children produce, direct, and enact their dramas. Within these scenarios, children develop competence and eligibility to be not only status assigners but also self status assigners. During†¦show more content†¦The self and self concept The psychoanalytic theorists (Freud, Erikson) see children playing out negative emotions in a safe context. Children are attempting to regain control in situations of conï ¬â€šict. Mead stresses the importance of role playing in children’s play, which activit y contributes to a child’s sense of self (Verenikina et al, 2003). Erikson (1963, p.240) in describing a young client struggling with the wartime death of his father, a pilot, illustrates the healing value of play: â€Å"†¦he was observed swooping down a hill on a bicycle, endangering, scaring, yet deftly avoiding other children†¦. In watching him, and hearing the strange noises he made, I could not help thinking that he again imagined himself to be an airplane on a bombing mission. But at the same time he gained in playful mastery over his locomotion; he exercised circumspection in his attack, and he became an admired virtuoso on a bicycle.† 259 Advances in Descriptive Psychology—Vol. 9 This description of a young boy playing imaginatively illustrates elements that theorists over the years have attributed to the value of play. His role play was distinctly social as others witnessed his attack, and his actions increased his stature, his prestige among his friends. His ability to handle the bike, his cognitive strength, â€Å"circumspection in his attack†, as he swoops down the hill, is noted as well. His self esteem increased to the extent that heShow MoreRelatedImportant Aspects Of A Functioning Classroom904 Words   |  4 Pageseducation system today, but I believe most of the theories we discussed could be accorporated much more in the classroom. John Dewey, Friedrich Froebel, Maria Montessori, and Lev Vygotsky all understood the way children think and the importance of imaginative play. They also understood that children need to be active in nature. Also, we have discussed different forms of learning, such as project based learning, and outdoor classrooms . In my opinion, the education system should have minor changes that benefitRead MoreSocial Learning And Teaching Play Essay1382 Words   |  6 Pagesteaching play. Play involves the holistic child, from the physical, psychological, intellectual, social, and emotional. Either by working independently or group work. Play is now a big part of the curriculum as doesn’t just help with the teaching side, but it also gives the children a way to relax and be themselves, and to express their feelings or what is going on in their life through play. ( accessed on 29th November 2016) Tina Bruce would also be a big influence on play, creativityRead MorePlay Education Essay1082 Words   |  5 Pages Play Education is the most important activity in the lives of children. Play is the foundation of learning for young children. For children play, is how they begin to understand and process their world? The best part for children is that play is fun and this keeps them always wanting more because they enjoy participating in it. Play education is for children up until age 12. And different ages are broken down into groups. Giving the child time and some few basic toys can provide them with a varietyRead MoreChildren’s Care, Learning and Development Essay666 Words   |  3 Pageslearning. 1.2. Describe how creative development links to other areas of learning and development within the framework related to own work setting. Creative development can link to many other areas of development. For example, through sand play the children are developing a whole range of skills, they are using their physical development to manipulate and mould the sand, they are developing their personal, social, communication, language literacy skills through playing together and chatteringRead MoreAnand Smilansky : A Developmental Theorist Who Has On Children s Learning1524 Words   |  7 PagesTheorist who has identified four types of play: Functional play, Constructive play, Dramatic play, and games with rules. Smilansky says that Dramatic play is the most mature type of play because this is the time where children start to understand their surroundings and imitate what they see others doing. The research on play focused on sociodramatic play and the impact it has on children’s learning. In Smilansky’s book ‘The Effects of Sociodramatic play on Disadvantaged Preschool Children’, she saysRead Mor eThe Act Of Playing And Learning1010 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Play is often talked about as if it were a relief from serious learning, but for children, play is serious learning.† (Mr. Rogers) Children love to play with toys because it is an important form of communication. It is through this act that children can create a life in a world of fantasy and imagination. They can have an enjoyable relationship between playing and learning. The act of playing enables the process of the child s learning since it facilitates the construction of physical, cognitiveRead MoreThe Play Heratbreaker875 Words   |  4 Pagesanalysis of the play Heartbreaker Name Institution Date Introduction The play Heartbreaker is a fictitious story done by Michael Golamco. It features two main characters, Vithy, who is a sixteen year old teenager and her elder sister Ra who is aged twenty two years. The play takes place in a solemn setting down in a small apartment bedroom. The room does not contain a lot of things; it is empty except for some few basic properties that make a bedroom. They events of the play take place atRead MoreThe Article Learning Through Play : Portraits, Photoshop And Visual Literacy Practices `` Written By Michelle A1020 Words   |  5 Pages The article â€Å"Learning Through Play: Portraits, Photoshop and Visual Literacy Practices† written by Michelle A. Honeyford and Karen Boyd,is about learning literacy through imaginative and visual play. The article gives a detailed look at an afterschool program that lets students learn about literacy while using creativity. Throughout this critique, areas of the article will be discussed that were successful and some that need improvement. One area of success is keeping creativity in education. ButRead MoreA Critique On Human Development Research870 Words   |  4 PagesArticle: The Need for Pretend Play in Child Development Author: Scott Barry Kaufman PH.D. (co authors: Jerome L. Singer and Dorothy G. Singer) Source of Article: The article I chose to critique for my paper is focused on early childhood development, starting around age two to about age seven. The article focuses on research that has been done about pretend play, and how necessary it is for aRead MoreCritique of a Toy1020 Words   |  5 Pages it allows for free play and helps children to be creative, it helps develop their learning skills and is good for their hand to eye co-ordination which also which also increase their physical and intellectual development ( Ellis flood 2010 Child Development for students in Ireland Dublin Gill Macmillan ) Margaret Macmillan approach to the curriculum was designed around toy which develops a child’s fine and gross motor skills and manual dexterity and she regarded free play as an important aspect

Dashain The Festival of Nepal Free Essays

Dashain Festival of Nepal INTRODUCTION Dashain is the biggest festival in Nepal. Dashain is celebrated by Nepalese people with great excitement. It is normally in the month of October but sometimes in late September. We will write a custom essay sample on Dashain: The Festival of Nepal or any similar topic only for you Order Now This festival is the longest and the most important of all festivals in Nepal. It falls in the best time of the year when fruits, vegetables and other foods are in plenty. And, all animals are well fed and healthy. It is said that Dashain is a celebration of the victory of the gods over the wicked demons. More sophisticated people think it as a message that good will always wins over bad in the end. And, we all should stand on the side of the good even when the bad side may look to be stronger. THE PREPARATION Before the first day of Dashain starts, people clean their houses, clean up the barns, paint white and red colours on the walls, paint the windows, repair the Aangan, repair the barns and trails in the villages, and paint the temples, schools and shelters with white clay. They buy new clothes, lots of food and spices. Then the celebration begins. THE FIFTEEN DAYS OF DASHAIN The fifteen days are said to mark the various events in the war between the gods and the demons. These fifteen days of Dashain are celebrated as follows: * Day 1: Ghastapana:Â  It is the first day of moon and represents the start of the battle. All weapons and tools in the households are gathered, cleaned and put in a room where Goddess Durga’s worship is commenced. Seeds of corn and barley are planted in a large planter of leaves and kept in dark in the worship room. These seeds would have grown to be yellow seedlings (Jamara) by the ninth day, when they are offered to Vishwa Karma and to all worshippers on the tenth day. * Day 2-7: Dwitia to Saptami:Â  Represent the continuation of the battle. * Day 8: Ashtami:Â  Animals are sacrificed in the temples of Goddess Durga asking for her help to win the battle. * Day 9: Nawami:Â  People worship Durga in mass. Everyone goes to temple of Durga. Also Vishwa Karma (god of creativity) is worshipped at the room where all tools and weapons were kept and the tools are finally released from the room. All machinery like sewing machine, cars, carts and grinding mills are stopped and offerings are made to Vishwa Karma asking to protect from accidents and mishaps. This day signifies that everyone gets ready for the final battle. * Day 10: Vijaya Dasami:Â  Goddess Durga defeats demon Mahishasur. Good finally wins over the bad. Victory is celebrated with exchanges of blessings and best possible food one can afford. Elders in the family give blessings to the young and put Tika and Jamara on their forehead. People are supposed to pay honor to and get blessings from the all surviving elders in the family clan. All people seem to be on the move as they try to visit as many relatives as possible to collect the most possible blessings. * Day 11-14: Ekadashi – Chaturthi:Â  These days are for visiting elders that were too far to visit on the tenth day. Also if some difficulties prevented us from reaching home and elders. So Tika continues throughout Dashain. * Day 15: Purnima or Kojagrat Purnima:Â  Dashain ends on the day of full-moon. On this day, people stay at home and rest. Laxmi (the goddess of wealth) is worshiped on this date. People are now ready to work and acquire virtue, power and wealth. In Dashain, you want a tika from an older person in your family or from anyone. You want to receive blessings from as many wellwishers as you can. First you start in your family. The oldest person in your family gives Tika and blessings to the youngest then the second youngest and so on. Anticipation, fun, hope, blessings and friendship come to you in Dashain, especially when you are close to your relatives and friends, and not in a far-away land and alone. You still write to your relatives or call them if you can and get thier thoughts and blessings even when you are far-far-away! How to cite Dashain: The Festival of Nepal, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Pest on Tesco Essay Example

Pest on Tesco Essay The diagrams and the tables that are used in this report are the below: Economic growth diagram Inflation diagram Unemployment diagram Immigration diagram Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the people who are behind these sites and all the web sites that I used, which were very helpful for me to finish my report. Summary In the PEST analysis below is given a description of the environment of the chosen firm in which the firm operates. Also are given some reasons of the importance of the PEST analysis and in the end is provided the influence of political, economical, social and technological factors in the firm’s operation. Introduction Tesco is probably one of the largest food retailers in the UK and generally one of the largest in the world. Tesco operates around 2,318 stores and employs over than 360,000 people (internet source 1). It gives the ability to the consumers to make shopping online, through its subsidiary Tesco. om. Tesco has a wide range of services and is not limited as a normal supermarket. Originally, it is specializing in food and drink, but also it is spread into many other areas. Some of these areas could be clothing, financial services, home and car insurance. PEST analysis is a powerful tool for understanding the external environment which surrounds the business. To be mo re specific, what it is meant to be the expression PEST is the Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors that a firm’s operation can be expressed. We will write a custom essay sample on Pest on Tesco specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pest on Tesco specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pest on Tesco specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Before starting a new business, in the running time of an organization and basically to monitor the future of the organization, it is essential to be carried out a PEST analysis. The aim of the report for Pest analysis of Tesco’s is to monitor the present and to keep an eye on the future. However, the reason of doing the Pest analysis is for checking any changes that could be done in the future and might influence the firm’s behavior, in political, economic, social and technological issues. Methodology Using internet as main source of the report, information about employment law, economic growth, inflation, unemployment, immigration, internet, innovation and technological advances will be taken under consideration. It will be helpful to understand how all these factors influence the firm at present and have an eye on the future. Findings – Results In this section of the report are mentioned the main macroeconomic objectives that government tries to support in order to keep up stability of the economy. These objectives are economic growth, inflation, unemployment and immigration. PATERNITY LEAVE AND PAY IS EXTENTED If the mother of the child returns to work before the maternity leave period ends to which she is entitled and then fathers will be able to benefit from up to 26 weeks’ additional leave. This may be paid and will be available when the child goes over the first six months of his life, if the taken during the mother’s statutory maternity pay period. The legislation of this law is to come into force in April 2010, with effect for parents of babies due from 3 April 2011. (Internet source 1) ECONOMIC GROWTH Since the summer of 2007 and the till nowadays, the economy of many countries round the word, suffers from the global crisis, one of these countries is also UK and it is to be expected the negative affection on the economic growth of the country. However, as Davison (2007:270) states, â€Å"In some years there is a high rate of economic and in other years, economic growth is low or even negative†. This rising and falling of the economic growth is not something unusual. In addition, Davison (2007) argues, that it is a continuous cycle, which has four stages, the upturn, the rapid expansion, the peaking out and the slowdown. At the moment we are experiencing the slowdown stage. (Internet source 2) The above table shows the economy growth in the UK in quarters. During the year 2005 and 2007 the economy showed a stability that does not occur in 2006 and 2008. Especially in 2008 the progress is negative INFLATION Davison (2007:268) argues that, â€Å"By inflation we mean a general rise in prices throughout the economy†. Government policy seeks to stabilize and to keep inflation low. An important reason of this is that it will aid the process of economic decision making as Davison (2007) states. UK inflation rate starts to rise, as shown from the national statistics. Internet source 3) Many people because of the crisis that many countries suffer of it, including UK, do not spend their money to unnecessary products but on products first needs for their living. Due to the increase of inflation as shown the graph above, if firms want to be competitive again, have to reduce the prices of their products. U NEMPLOYMENT Unemployment is a common problem for many countries, so UK as well. They aim to reduce unemployment because it is a negative figure on government resources as Davison (2007) argues. In addition Davison (2007:268) states that, â€Å"Also unemployment represents a waste of human resources†. The graph below shows the increase of unemployment in the UK. (Internet sources 4) The increase of unemployment shows us that in the 3rd quarter almost 140,000 people lost their job. However, that means the government will lose incomes coming for instance from taxes and insurances that the unemployment people were going to pay if they have a normal monthly income as they used to have. IMMIGRATION Many people leave their county hopefully to find another place to live, searching something better which will give them a meaning to their life and for so many others reasons. UK is an attractive country for immigrants, offering many jobs and better life for them. The majority of the immigrants are not educated with a result not to get a good job but the appropriate one to live normally. However, there is a number of people who come to UK searching for a job and because they are educated enough they get a well paid job. The figure above shows the increase of immigration in UK. Every year immigrants come to country more and more. An estimated 590,000 people arrived to live in UK in 2008 which is the second highest figure on record after 596,000 in 2006. Internet source 5) INTERNET Internet is included in technological factor of Pest analysis. Tesco gives the ability to its customers to do shopping online but still is a quite difficult for its customers for the fact that some people do not find easy the order that they have to follow for online shopping. However, to do online shopping you have to meet specific requirements. For instance, to have a Tesco club card is one of the requirements. INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES Technological advance for Tesco would be more specific software which will record all the import and export product of Tesco. It is an advantage for a firm to know what stock has or what products sells for a better organized procedure of it. For instance, sometime some firms like Tesco, when a product that it sells, has been sold and is not available any more for the customers, is a bad image of the firm with a result to lose customers. Discussion Tesco is a food retailer and operates in UK. The PEST analysis will be carried out will point out some of the main factors that influence Tesco. Such factors could be political, economic, social and technological. In the first section political factors are on discussion. Tesco, according to employment law â€Å"Paternity leave and pay is extended†, which will be legally approved on the 3rd of April 2010, should take under consideration the staff recruitment. If Tesco wants to be as less as impossible affected by this law its staff should be equally share in men and women. According to this law Tesco will have to pay the percentage of men who are not going to work probably but legally during their absence and then it will have to recruitment more staff to cover the space that is going to exist. The consequence would be that Tesco will have more costs which could be avoided. The second section is the economic factors. When there is an economic growth of the country, people will continue shop from Tesco and the profits of it will increase because more money will be in a daily transaction between people and Tesco or any firm. However, when people’s wealth(income) growths might be a negative effect on Tesco sales, because people will switch to more expensive food retailers. People with the global crisis started to think more conservatory and they just buy necessary products. That might stay as a characteristic of them self and even if their income will be increased they will not change their habits. However, as the rate of the unemployment of the country increases Tesco is earning customers and making more profits. People who have low income or are unemployment they turn to shop from Tesco because it has low price products. People try to find ways to save some money when there is so much of unemployment in the country and Tesco provides such solutions. Also as the inflation in UK and generally rises, there is a general rise in prices. People are more careful of where and what they spend their money. They do not buy unnecessary products but only for basic needs. This will affect Tesco positive, because it sells products in low price and there you can find products for basic need cheapest. Immigration can be considered as a social factor of PEST analysis. A huge number of people emigrate and come to UK to live and find a job. As the graph shows above on 2006 and 2008 was the highest record of people who arrived in UK. According to that fact Tesco’s customers becoming more and more year by year. When people come to UK and search for a job, it is true that they do not have a high standard income, and they turn to shop from Tesco. Of course they will not shop from food retailers which are expensive but they will try to find the cheapest one, without that is worse than any other food retailer shop. About technological factors, which internet is included, Tesco should consider that many people do not know how to use internet and should try to simplify the procedure of doing shop online. Furthermore, with that impressive movement of Tesco to offer to the customers the opportunity to shop online and then to deliver to them the products is still quite complicated for some people to do it, because they do not meet the requirements. Such requirements are to have a Tesco club card and also they have to sign up in specific data base. That might be a reason for Tesco not being able to expand market share in the future. In addition, if Tesco will promote specific software which record any export or import of its products might gain more customers, because customers sometimes when they go for shopping and search for a specific product and it is not available at the moment are dissatisfied and might start a word of mouth negative promotion. Conclusion and Recommendations In this part of the report the PEST analysis has come to an end and it is essential to refer to the fact that even of the governmental intervention the economic environment remains unstable. However, Tesco has to relate its operation according to some laws which has to be taken under consideration if it wants to make more profits and to expand market share at the present and to keep an eye in the future. In the economic factor of PEST analysis, I recommend for the business to be more carefully with the recruitment staff. Tesco should recruitment younger people and should have an equally balance between the staff to skip some costs depending on the employment law, for instance to pay paternity leave and to recruitment new staff to recover the space that will be if some people of its staff have to be away from the business for a period of time according to the law. It is a waste of money for Tesco. Basically when there is inflation in the country the prices go up. In fact there are numbers of people who will prefer Tesco for shopping in such cases. In some cases, businesses are able to set prices, so a good recommended solution for Tesco, to make more profits and to gain more customers in the future is to set lower prices. In fact it sells products in lower price than others food retailers but because it is also spread into others areas like clothing or financial services that would be a good recommendation. In addition, when the rate of unemployment is high, if Tesco wants to be more profitable I recommend the business to also set lower price to be more competitive but because it is also has low price to find the best price which will still give to it profit and to attract the customers. That can be done also when the rate of immigration is also high. However, an also good recommendation for gaining customers and making more profit is that Tesco should provide some promotional offers. For instance, buy one product and get another one free or buy one and get another in half price. In technological factor, would be good if Tesco take under consideration in the future specific software to record all the import and export products. It is essential for customers when they search for a specific product to can find it easily and to be available at any time. And finally, I recommend Tesco to make easier the access on its website and the procedure for the online shop. That would be a reason for gaining customers and its online sales will be much more, because some people prefer to do shopping online than going to the store and if they are more close to another food retailer, probably they will shop from there. By doing that Tesco will just rise its profits. References Book: -Davison, L. (2007) The Business Environment 3rd Edition, Pearson Custom Publications -Internet web pages all accessed on the 13th and 14th of December 2009: 1)Personneltoday. com : http://www. personneltoday. com/events/list. aspx? navigationid=10type=10026 2

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Informative Essay Sample on Water Unusual Properties

Informative Essay Sample on Water Unusual Properties Introduction Water is an essential ingredient for the existence of life as we know it. Biochemical processes occur in aqueous environments, many of which use water. Water also plays a significant role in the process of photosynthesis ( 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 672kcal - C6H12O6 + 6O2 ). Photosynthesis is the most basic and significant chemical reaction on earth, providing the primary nutrients, directly or indirectly, for all living organisms and is the primary source of atmospheric oxygen. Without water and its unique and unusual properties, life as we know it on earth would not exist. Water is the only substance naturally present on the earth that exists in three distinct states -solid, liquid, and gas. Many of the unique properties in the take for granted include the three physical phases, transparency, universal solvents, density behavior and temperature, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, viscosity, surface tension and low compressibility. To understand why these properties exist in water and why they are essential to life on earth it is important to look at the shape and bonding patterns of the molecule because the uniqueness of water is a direct result of its shape and bonding patterns. The shape of the water molecule In the water molecule the oxygen atom is the central atom. It has four pairs of valence electrons surrounding it. Two of these pairs are shared which form the shared pairs form covalent bonds with the hydrogen atoms. The remaining two pairs are unshared and have a greater repulsive effect than the shared pairs. The combined repulsive effect of the two unshared electron pairs produces an H-O-H bond angle that is smaller than the H-C-H bond angle (109.47 degrees) in methane or the H-N-H bond angle (107 degrees) in ammonia. Actual measurement of the bond angle in water is 104.5. If the two hydrogen nuclei were as far apart as possible the angle would be 109.47. The unique bond angle in water is only 104.5 degrees. The resulting shape of the molecule is referred to as bent or angular. Traditionally the VESPR model theory is used to predict molecular shape. See appendix A. Chemical bonding To understand the unusual properties of water as well as what causes them we need to have a basic understanding of the chemical bonding and the structure of the water molecule. The shape of the water molecule is determined in part by the chemical bonding that occurs. For a brief review of chemical bonding see appendix B. The water molecule consists of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. The chemical bonds in the water molecule are covalent bonds since the hydrogen atoms combine with the oxygen atoms in shared electron pairs. The oxygen atoms exerts a relatively strong pull on the shared electron pairs which causes the hydrogen atom to become electropositive regions and the oxygen atoms to become an electronegative region. The water molecule is considered a polar molecule because the positive and negative regions are not evenly distributed around a center point. The water molecule due to its polar nature is electrostatically attracted to other water molecules as well as other ions in solution. The attraction of the electropositive hydrogen atom to the electronegative oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule is the bridging phenomenon known as hydrogen bonding and is only about 10 percent the strengths of a covalent bond. This special bond is responsible for most of the unusual properties of water: high freezing and boiling points, high heat capacity, high heats of fusion and evaporation, solvency, and high surface tension. Let us look more closely at the bonding patterns of water. Polar Covalent Bond When oxygen and hydrogen atoms are brought together the difference in their electronegativities is not sufficient to yield ions. Instead they must share a pair of electrons between them forming a covalent bond. Some sharing is more equal than others and oxygens greater electronegativity draws the electron pairs closer to its nucleus and further away from the hydrogens nuclei. This results in a concentration of negative charges nearer the oxygen atom and thus further from the positively charges protons that make the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms. The bond formed is intermediate between a fully ionic bond and a purely covalent bond. There is a separation of charges but not complete as in the formation of ions. The partial charge that is produced is symbolized by d. In Water, one side of the molecule, where the hydrogen atoms are, will be partially positively charged. The other side with the unshared pairs of electrons will be negatively charged. As a whole the molecule is polar. So it c an be said that the water molecule has a polar covalent bond. The polarity of the water molecule makes mutual attraction between water molecules possible. The Hydrogen Bond Each molecule has a d- and d+ region. The attraction occurs between the d- and d+ regions (remember unlike charges attract). This means that each water molecule attracts four other water molecules to it. The hydrogen atom is attracted to the oxygen atom of the adjacent water molecule. Each oxygen atom can associate with two hydrogen atoms of other nearby water molecule through its unshared pair of electrons. The force of attraction between these polar molecules is not as strong as a covalent or ionic bond but strong enough to be significant. It is important enough to be called the HYDROGEN BOND. It is the hydrogen bonding that occurs between water molecules that accounts for many of the remarkable and vital properties of water that make the presence of water synonymous with life itself. Firstly, the ability of water to remain liquid over a large portion of the range of temperatures found on earth is one such vital property. Other molecules, as small as water (eg CO2), change from liquid to gas at temperatures far below that of water. It is also the Hydrogen bond which is responsible for the large amount of heat energy needed to convert water from liquid to gas. Water is therefore a great stabilizer of temperature which is essential to the survival of life on this planet. It accounts for more moderate temperatures near large bodies of water. This property is also exploited by many living organisms. Sweat, and its evaporation is a vital cooling process for biological mammals and depend greatly on the large amount of heat energy required to break the hydrogen bonds between wate r molecules. Hydrogen bonding maintains the integrity of the water molecule during chemical reactions. Other compounds undergo chemical changes (ionization), where as water will maintain its chemical integrity. As a result water is a poor conductor of electrical current. Hydrogen bonding is the reason for the lower density of ice relative to water. In conclusion, three main unique features which are the consequences of hydrogen bonding in water are: melting point, surface tension, density. These and other unique properties of water are responsible for the important role that water plays in life. Water’s Important Role Water is the single most abundant molecule in living things. It provides the medium in which most biochemical interactions occur. Some biochemical reactions water is involved in are: cellular respiration, digestion, and photosynthesis. Water is the home for many animals, plants and micro-organisms. Water is involved in the cycling of all other material by living things both on a local and global scale. Water has a number of unique and unusual properties that are responsible for its important roles it plays in the biosphere. BOILING AND MELTING POINTS. Water has unusually high boiling and freezing points compared to other compounds with similar molecular structure. A comparison of boiling and freezing points can be seen in the following chart. Notice only water has a boiling and melting point that exists within the range of life. The boiling point of water is a unique 100oC results is and the freezing point is a remarkable 0oC due to the fact of the polar nature of the water molecule and hydrogen bonding. Two important, but not unique, properties of water for life are that water is liquid at normal temperatures over much of the earth and that water is transparent. If water were not liquid, nutrients could not flow from soil to the roots of plants, blood could not circulate, and bodies of organisms would be so rigid that they could not move. If water were not transparent, light could not penetrate through cellular protoplasm into chloroplasts to drive photosynthesis in plants, you would be blind because light could not penetrate through the vitreous humor to the retina of your eyes, and light could not penetrate into lakes to allow growth of phytoplankton. Clearly life cannot exist without the amazing properties of water. SOLVENT CAPABILITY. A solvent is a substance capable of dissolving another substance (solute) to form a homogeneous mixture (solution) at a molecular level. The polar nature of water makes it an excellent solvent especially with other polar compounds such as salts, alcohols, carboxylic compounds and many more. As a solvent water is unsurpassed in it’s ability to dissolve a wide range of inorganic and organic substances. More substances dissolve in water than any other known substance. The versitility of water as a solvent allows it to serve as the medium of transport for so many materials. This is true both for individual organism and for the biosphere as a whole. The essential transport systems including blood, lymph, and urine are all water based. Without water’s solvent capabilities to make three systems work, life could not exist. A LESS DENSE SOLID FORM. Water exists in liquid form over a wide range of temperatures outside of which life  processes are slowed down or halted completely. Between 4ÌŠc and the freezing point at 0ÌŠc, an amazing thing happens that occurs with very few substances, Water gradually expands becoming less dense. Water is the only substance where the liquid state is heavier than the solid state. All other substances the solid form is denser than the liquid form. Since the density of ice is less than that of liquid Walter, ice floats on water. It is very significant that ice expands and floats on water because if lakes and streams froze from the bottom to the top, aquatic life would not even exist, and climate and weather patterns would be altered drastically. This is an important quality of water because as ice forms it floats on top of the water. It acts to provide a thermal blanket for the rest of the water beneath and all its many life forms. This is important because if water b ehaved like all other substances, water bodies would freeze from the bottom up and in most cases would never thaw completely during summer. This would have a dramatic cooling effect globally and would impact all life on earth. LARGE HEAT CAPACITY. The remarkable property of water is its extremely high capacity to absorb heat without a significant increase in temperature. We see examples of this all the time. For example, under the summer sun at the beach, sand will increase in temperature to the point where it is too hot to walk on, whereas the water temperature is still cool, even though both are heated by the same amount of solar heat energy. Water has the largest heat capacity of any common substance. This means that water takes more heat energy to raise the temperature of water a given number of degrees than for any other material. In cooling water gives up more heat than any other material. This property is important globally and individually. Individually, the high heat capacity buffers organisms from sudden extreme shifts in temperature which would be harmful to it. Globally, the oceans moderate seasonal temperature fluctuations. That is why coastal areas are cooler than inland areas at the same lat itude. These differences influence the weather globally. And without weather changes life would be very unbearable. The absorption of huge amounts of solar heat energy by water during the day and the slow release of heat energy during the night is responsible for the moderate climate in the coastal areas. A wider range of temperatures typically exist inland away from bodies of water. If not for the vast oceans on earth tempering the climate life would not exist. This property combines with the MPIBP property to create the water cycle which supports life on earth. HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION. Water has an extraordinarily high heat of vaporization. On average it takes 580 calories to convert one gram of water into water vapour. A value that is higher than any other common substance. This property is of important significance to animals in regulating body temperature because of the large amount of body heat that is required to evaporate water (sweat). Without this property of water, organisms would overheat and die and the climate would be thrown into chaos. SURFACE TENSION. Water has the highest surface tension of any other liquid except Mercury. Surface tension is the attractive force exerted by the molecules below the surface on those at the liquid-air interface. The liquid is restrained from flowing by this inward force. The exceptionally high surface tension of water is due to the hydrogen bonding of water. This is demonstrated when you see an insect being able to support itself on the surface layer of water. The surface tension also leads to a higher viscosity as it doesnt flow as easily. This is known as the clumping effect like the high melting point and boiling point the clumping effect occurs in liquid, that have hydrogen bonding. Conclusion All of these unusual properties stem from the unusual structure and bonding patterns of the water molecule. The molecule is strongly polar because of its uneven distribution of electrons. This allows water to interact easily with other polar substances which accounts for the great solvent power of water. The electronegativity difference between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water molecules is responsible for the establishing of hydrogen bonds between molecules. It is the mutual attraction of water molecules that accounts for the ability of water to remain liquid over a broad range of temperature (0oC-100oC) and also for its high heat of vaporization and high heat capacity. Water could not have all these special characteristics/properties without its unique shape and bonding patterns, life could not exist if not for these special properties of water,  especially the hydrogen bond.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Make winning small talk in a job interview

Make winning small talk in a job interview Although there’s a wide array of variables that can affect the types of interviews you’ll find yourself in when job hunting- from the industry and position you’re pursuing to the size of the room and the number of people whom you’ll be meeting with and more- your goal should always be the same: to leave a positive and lasting impression on a prospective employer and stand out from the competition as someone they’d really value working with. While there are a number of key factors that you’ll be focusing on as you prepare for an interview, from a well-polished resume to an impeccable outfit and talking points about your past accomplishments and why you’re the perfect candidate for the job, one area that often gets overlooked is the value of â€Å"small talk.†The truth is, small talk is actually an essential component of the interview process. Often, our very first and last impression, before and after the nuts and bolts of an int erview takes place, is made over small talk. Think of the walk from the reception area, the few initial moments of â€Å"settling in† to the room where the interview takes place, and the final goodbyes over a firm and confident handshake- these are all opportunities to make a positive and memorable impact.Let’s review some effective strategies for making sure you put your best foot forward when making small talk in a job interview.Stay positive.You may have had a terrible morning on your way to the interview where everything went hilariously wrong- your alarm didn’t go off, you knocked over a steaming hot cup of coffee, and you nearly burnt a hole in your shirt while ironing it and eating breakfast at the same time- but do you want this to be the first impression your interviewer has of you? Whining about the challenges you overcame to get to the interview on time, assuming you made it there on time, is not a good idea.You don’t want your interviewer to t hink that if you were hired that you’d have to deal with an array of life’s foibles each morning in order to get to work on time. And you don’t want them to think you’re the type of person who’s always negative and has a raincloud following them around. Regardless of your work history and accomplishments, starting or ending an interview with negative small talk will surely work against you when they’re making a hiring decision.Instead, stay positive- both in what you say and in your body language. Smile, project confidence and a positive outlook, and try to turn your small talk into an opportunity to be complimentary. Talk about how nice the office is or the pleasant weather or commute over, drop a comment about a nice plant or piece of artwork that your interviewer has. The goal here is to make the interviewer think that you’d be a pleasant person to have around if hired.Avoid controversy.Sometimes an interview will start off on a ca sual and relaxed vibe- more like a friendly conversation than a Q A session, and this can be a good thing. Remember, the goal of an interview is to both present yourself as a capable candidate as well as a person who’s enjoyable to have around. You definitely want to leave the impression that you’ll make a great fit within a company’s workplace culture. However, if an interview takes the tone of a casual conversation this doesn’t mean that all conversation topics are okay to bring up. Do your best to avoid such hot-button areas as politics and religion, and try to refrain from getting too personal, which may make an interviewer uncomfortable or think that you have boundary issues, which could be a big red flag.Use context clues.Whenever you’re first getting to know someone new, that’s typically when you’re most open and receptive to available context clues about how best to proceed in a conversation. An interview should be no differe nt. Look for clues- both subtle and overt- to help build your small-talk game. Is your interviewer’s office filled with dog photos and he or she drops a casual dog reference into the conversation? Try to inject a mention about your own love of dogs, and if you have a dog yourself, even better! Don’t forget, the best way to bond with someone is to discover the things you have in common.Context clues can also help you determine what conversation items to avoid. Does the interviewer wince or look uncomfortable when you make mention of something? Pay attention to this, and change the subject, fast. Bottom line: be friendly, flexible, and on the lookout for positive conversational touchpoints.Are you ready for small talk?Whether or not you like small talk, you need to be prepared to handle it when you’re going on interviews. You can’t rely on your resume to â€Å"speak for itself†- remember, most interviewers are looking to get a sense of what sort of p erson you are and what it would be like to work with you, in addition to gauging your professional abilities. Be sure to treat each interview as an opportunity to get to know someone new and make a positive connection, and you’ll be sure to make a great impression!

Friday, February 14, 2020

The Concepts and, Myths of the Modern World Essay

The Concepts and, Myths of the Modern World - Essay Example The followers were called Rationalists. The Utopians strive to banish from memory the dark struggle against feudalism in pursuit of revolutionary principles, and a new class of the industrial commoner is conceived by the application of the enlightened sciences. The concepts of Degeneration and Regeneration operate on the basis of an assumed mutual-understanding of order and chaos, function and malfunction, the normal and the pathological. It is closely associated to the ethical realm of norms and values. The concrete, spatial transgression of boundaries (between the house, the garden, the street, the country and the city, as well as between inner and outer space) found in the above, often symbolizes a transgression of conventional gender norms. (Buchholz et al, 2002). An in-depth understanding of the above can, it is argued, lead to avoidance of the deficits or malaise (this seems so normal in the dystopian scheme), of the modern world. In ancient civilizations like the Mesopotamian, the 'juridico-discursive' power is entirely at the hands of a 'sovereign authority who exercised absolute control over the population through the threat or open display of violence' (Foucault, 1978). Bentham's concept of 'Panoticon' or the 'Inspection House' symbolizes this authority transferred to buildings in (especially constructed in circular forms) wherein people were to be kept under Surveillance or inspection. This is, particularly applicable to "Penitentiary-Houses, Prisons, Hospitals, Schools, Industrial Houses, Poor-houses, Lazarettos and Mad-houses" (Bentham, 1787). Surveillance, becomes an important tool of the state is but, a sort of mapping of contours, geographies, and finally human beings too. Modern states also used such "thematic mapping technologies", a notable one, being "the cadastral map, which record land ownership and resource characteristics" (Goss, Jon. 1995). Constant surveillance which, when internalized, as in "disciplining the body, takes hold of the mind as well to induce a psychological state of 'conscious and permanent visibility" (Foucault 1977). It then becomes a disciplinary power that is used directly on the body, and collectively, to control social groups. Foucault speaks of the structured ways of knowing and exercising this power, in respect of Body, Power and the Sexuality; Subjectivity, identity and resistance; and Freedom, power and Politics.( Armstrong,2005). Speed: Relationship between new technologies, spaces and new identities. Speed is inversely proportional to the time within which a work is done. It is something that man, by conscious reformation of his techniques, "more conscious that ever of himself and his time in life," (Kudera, 1996) has brought in with the technical revolution. This revolution is evident in the rampant automation of many every-day processes. Asger Jorn(1958), elucidates the process of automation as something that progressive and, "adds more than it replaces or suppresses." The invention of the bi-cycle, can be said as the first step. Constant improvisation lead to rapid industrialization (mass production), the off-shoot of which is the railroad system. The fascination for Speed not only lead to